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Assignment Topic : The Latino Community
Number of Pages :3 Page/ 825 Words
ESSAY WRITTEN SOLUTION
The Latino community contributes 17.3 per cent of the labour force in the United States and are 18.4 per cent of the nation’s population. The Latino community has led to a significant population increase in the United States. Between 2010 and 2020, the United States population increased by 22.7 million people, and Latinos contributed to more than half of this number. For some Americans, Latinos play a significant role in the American economy.
However, the community faces significant struggles when settling in American society. The Latino community faces segregation and institutionalized discrimination. The community experiences challenges setting up families, accessing education, accessing healthcare, and getting jobs. By being perceived as the \”other\” in American society, they experience numerous unique challenges.
The Latino community faces significant challenges in setting up families. Studies reveal that only 45 per cent of Latinos above the age of 15 years are married. This is a small number compared to whites of the same age in which 55 per cent of them are married. Additionally, only 26 per cent of Whites have never been married compared to 41 per cent of Latinos never being married. The Latino community insists on strong family affiliations; hence having a low number of marriages show challenges of the Latino community settling in the American society. According to Riggio and Avalos(2017), the low number of marriages and family setups in a community that values family affiliation is explained by migration patterns. Additionally, immigrant parents are more susceptible to poverty and low education levels than other ethnic groups\’ parents. Riggio and Avolas (2017) conducted a qualitative study investigating the challenges faced by the Latino community in parenting and their resilience to the challenges. Their study employed non-probability availability sampling and structured interviews. The study examined the first generation challenges of Latinos and their resilience in overcoming the obstacles. In the survey, Riggio and Avolas find that the Latino community faces an increased challenge in adjusting to the United States culture and is more likely to experience social isolation. Social isolation leads to Latino communities having lesser access to community resources. It serves as a blessing for those with access to community resources because of the access and as a curse due to the increased social obligation. Having a small part of the population accessing community resources makes the Latino community over-reliant on them, which takes a toll on the mental health of the relied population.
Riggio and Avolas(2017) observations are similar to the observations made by congresswoman Carolyne Maloney. Through collecting data from various national agencies,, Carolyne Maloney addresses the economic disparities that the Latino community face in the United States. Carolyn Maloney\’s document also addresses the educational needs of the Latino community. Educational attainments are another significant challenge facing the Latino community. Completing formal education is critical in preparing young adults for the job market. According to Maloney, the Latino community has made significant strides in educational attainments over the years, but there is still a considerable gap in representation, especially in higher educational attainments. The college education gap is a significant indicator of disparities facing the Latino community contributing to accumulated disadvantage. A study by Arellanes, Anguaino and Lohman(2018) also identifies the Latino community as lagging in educational attainments. Arellanes, Anguaino and Lohman(2018) researched how to better Latino families\’ educational attainments and how the families perceive their children\’s education.
Arellanes, Anguiano and Lohman interviewed 63 participants in the ethnographic study. Their findings similar to Maloney\’s indicate that many Latino students start formal schooling with lesser social and economic resources than other students have. Moreover, schools are not equipped with the necessary resources to compensate for the initial Latino disparities (Arellanes, Anguaino and Lohman, 2018). Arellanes, Anguaino and Lohman(2018) state that” latino parents access to the education system is affected by community values, family values, and school practices.” The initial disadvantages of Latino students include their parent\’s socioeconomic and immigrant status. Another study by Carales(2020) also identifies the initial disadvantages of Latino students as being barriers to their educational attainment.
Charles examines the educational attainment outcomes of the Latino community by investigating the background and pre-college characteristics. Charles employs three logistic regression analyses on a nationwide sample and conducts a longitudinal study starting from post-secondary students. Charles documents the initial disadvantages mentioned by Arellanes, Anguiano and Lohman as key factors preventing high educational attainments in the Latino community. Combined with the lack of knowledge of the United States educational system, these two factors offer significant disadvantages for Latino students. As Latino students progress through their education, the insufficient resources and weak relationships with teachers significantly undermine their educational attainments. As a result, Latinos have the lowest college degree attainment and high school graduation. In the United States, the Latino community is the least educated. Maloney mentions that Latino young adults are less likely to graduate from college than whites. Additionally, they have fewer chances of graduating from college than blacks and other ethnic groups(Maloney, 2019). Maloney(2019) states that \”more than one-quarter of the Latino community lack a high school degree.” Out of every 4 Latinos, one lacks a high school degree. This is a big number compared to one out of three whites lacking a high school degree. Additionally, Latinos are five times more likely to have not completed high school than whites (Maloney, 2019).
The Latino community faces significant employment issues. According to Stone(2020), approximately 29 million Latino workers in the American labour force. These numbers account for 18 per cent of all United States working population. Stone states that in 2018, approximately 67 percent of the Latino population was in the labour force. This is a larger number compared to 63 per cent of blacks and 63 per cent of whites being in the labour force. Despite their significant numbers in the labour force, the Latino unemployment rate is higher than the white unemployment rate(Stone, 2018). These remarks are similar to the findings by Maloney(2019), where Maloney states that out of 27,000 people, 22000 are employed full-time. However, the Latino community\’s massive employment levels only encompass low paying sectors. The Latino community experiences significant segregation and unemployment in the high paying sectors. Findling and company(2019) research on the experiences of Latinos in regards to discrimination in the United States. They utilized data from a telephone survey, a national representation and probability-based. The survey included 803 Latinos, and they were compared to 902 white adults in 2017. Findling and company calculated Latinos\’ per cent of discrimination levels in several areas, including employment and healthcare. They then employed a logistic regression in comparing the discrimination odds between Latinos and Whites. According to their findings, many Latinos reported experiencing employment discrimination. Findling and the company found that 33 per cent of Latinos face discrimination when applying for jobs while 32 per cent experience discrimination in wages. Additionally, the study revealed that Latinos also face significant discrimination in job promotions or wage increase opportunities.
The wag gapes between Latinos and Whites are also documented in another study by Villareal and Tamborini(2018). Villareal and Tamborini examine the earning trajectories of immigrants. They measure the speed and extent to which immigrants can reduce the earning gaps between them and the native white people. Villareal and Tamborini utilize a dataset linking SIPP (Survey of Income and Program Participation)respondents and employ a longitudinal study. They obtained respondents from personal tax records, and they aimed to address critical debates concerning cohort and ethno racial differences in earning trajectories of immigrants. Their studies revealed a racially differentiated earning assimilation pattern. The study found that Latinos are less likely to catch up with the earnings of native white people compared to Asian and white migrants. Latinos are disproportionately represented in low paying jobs and are significantly under-represented in the economy’s fast growing sectors such as health, education, and high paying sectors such as finance. Maloney mentions that Latino workers generally earn lower than white or black workers in the labour force. Malone states, \”Median earnings of full-time Latino workers was $206 less than the labour force’s overall full-time workers earnings”(Maloyne, 2019).
To sum up, the Latino community faces significant challenges when settling in the United States. A significant part of these challenges generates from institutionalized discrimination, which creates a challenging cycle for Latinos. The cycle starts with the first generation not having enough knowledge of the United States education system and being liable to only low-paying jobs. The cycle then proceeds to the first generation not having adequate resources to support the high education attainments of their children. This results in the Latino offspring being liable to poor education hence poor paying jobs and more economic challenges, which transfer to the next generation creating a vicious cycle of inequality among the Latino community in the United States.
Arellanes, J. A., Anguaino, R. P. V., & Lohman, B. J. (2018). Bettering the educational attainment for Latino families: How families view the education of their children. Journal of Latinos and Education.
Carales, V. D. (2020). Examining educational attainment outcomes: A focus on Latina/o community college students. Community College Review, 48(2), 195-219.
Carolyne Maloney(2019) the United States Joint EconomicCommittee. https://luckytutors.com/wp-content/uploads/2022/09/economic-state-of-the-latino-community-in-america-final-errata-10-15-2019.pdf
Findling, M. G., Bleich, S. N., Casey, L. S., Blendon, R. J., Benson, J. M., Sayde, J. M., & Miller, C. (2019). Discrimination in the United States: experiences of Latinos. Health services research, 54, 1409-1418.
Riggio, N. R., & Avalos, B. I. (2017). PARENTING CHALLENGES AND RESILIENCIES OF LATINO IMMIGRANT PARENTS.
Stone, C. (2020). Robust Unemployment Insurance, Other Relief Needed to Mitigate Racial and Ethnic Unemployment Disparities. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities.
Villarreal, A., & Tamborini, C. R. (2018). Immigrants’ economic assimilation: Evidence from longitudinal earnings records. American Sociologic